IRI – International Research Institute for Climate and Society (2023)

scientifichave shownthat the occurrence of floods, droughts, and other weather-related disasters is not statistically different between years with El Niño, neutral, or La Niña conditions (see Figure 1). So why is the El Niño-Southern Oscillation or ENSO important?The short answer: In years with El Niño or La Niña conditions, such disasters can be more predictable, allowing decision makers to take action and prepare for such events. Because El Niño and La Niña events can last up to a year or more, their impact on temperature and precipitation patterns can last many seasons and have cumulative social impacts.

How does ENSO influence climate and weather patterns?

The most direct effects from ENSO to regional weather patterns are found in areas closest to the tropical Pacific. Under neutral conditions, Indonesia and other areas of the western Pacific experience more precipitation than the eastern Pacific, such as Peru and Ecuador. However, during El Niño events, the warmer surface waters in the tropical Pacific move eastward due to diminishing trade winds. This leads to areas of low pressure and increased precipitation on the western coasts of North and South America. By contrast, water temperatures in the Western Pacific are getting cooler than normal, resulting in higher pressure and less precipitation there. Although disasters can occur in many regions of the world each year, certain places are particularly affected during El Niño events. Impacts from past El Niño events include flooding and mudslides in Peru and California (1997 El Niño caused $2 billion in property damage in Peru); forest fires and consequent air pollution in Indonesia; and droughts in northern Australia.

(Video) Columbia University's International Research Institute for Climate and Society

Figure 1: Bars show the number of annual floods (tan), droughts (shaded), and "other" (pink), including storms and temperature extremes. El Niño (red lines) and La Niña (blue lines) events are indicated along the x-axis. The solid green line represents the untrended total annual catastrophic event with a second-order polynomial (black dashed line). The upward trend in disaster frequency reflects a combination of the following factors: increased disaster notification, increased concentration of people and assets in high-risk areas, increased vulnerability, and long-term changes in the frequency or severity of disasters. weather hazard events. Therefore, the total annual number of disasters is "trend-adjusted" to estimate the influence of ENSO and weather on the frequency of disasters. OutsideGoddard y Dilley, 2005.

Under neutral and La Niña conditions, upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich waters from the deep Pacific nurture and cultivate fisheries off the equatorial coast of South America. When El Niño conditions occur, the warmer waters of equatorial South America and weaker trade winds dampen the usual upwelling and reduce the amount of available nutrients. The lack of nutrients is affecting marine life throughout the food chain and is having a serious impact on Peru's fisheries. In 1972, the Peruvian anchovy fishery collapsed due to a combination of overfishing and El Niño. The 1997-98 El Niño also adversely affected Peru's fisheries and economy.

During La Niña events, the trade winds pick up again and intensify, raising the equatorial elevation and stretching the cooler waters of the eastern Pacific to the west. The resulting impacts are essentially the opposite of El Niño: the western Pacific experiences above-average rainfall, and the resulting flooding can be severe if it follows a prolonged El Niño-induced drought. Below-average temperatures and rainfall occur along the west coast of America, while tropical cyclones may be more frequent in northern Australia.

Can ENSO affect places far from the Pacific Ocean?

Yes! Although the strongest signal from ENSO impacts is in the areas closest to the equatorial Pacific, El Niño and La Niña are powerful enough forces to change the seasonal temperature toand precipitation patterns around the world. These changes, known astelecommunications, arise from the effects of tropical sea surface temperatures on the upper atmosphere. As different parts of the tropical ocean warm and cool and pressure gradients change, atmospheric wind patterns also change to alter precipitation patterns. Heavy tropical rains release significant heat into the atmosphere, which can affect large-scale atmospheric circulation. Changing the location and intensity of tropical precipitation patterns results in changes in the location and intensity of jet streams and wakes from storms, tropical cyclones, and more. Because each El Niño and La Niña event has unique characteristics related to specific timing, intensity, and pattern changes, these changes are never exactly the same during each El Niño and La Niña event.Furthermore, atmospheric effects due to changes in sea surface temperatures represent only a part of the observed regional climate; Chaotic fluctuations in the atmosphere and sea surface temperatures in other regions of the world also affect the weather and climate we experience. For this reason, the expected ENSO impacts in seasonal forecasts are treated probabilistically and not with absolute certainty.

Typical precipitation patterns during El Niño events. These telelinks are likely, but not certain, during El Niño events. card ofIRI Data Library Map Rooms.

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During the two strongest El Niño events of the 20th century (1982-1983 and 1997-1998), the global impact of changing weather patterns expanded to include disease outbreaks, natural disasters, water shortages, and disturbances.for energy production from hydroelectric power and animal migration. It should be noted that ENSO impacts in these years were not necessarily more catastrophic than climate and weather events in years without ENSO impacts. The difference is that the effects of ENSO can be traced back to a specific, predictable weather event, whereas for many weather and weather events, scientists cannot trace the cause of an event back to that event.

Impacts of previous ENSO telelinks include the outbreak of brown locusts in southern Africaassociated with early winter rainfall. These early precipitations can also lead to droughts, crop failures, and the like.Famine. In El Niño years, West Florida tends to experience above-average rainfall, which in turn leads to increased water and groundwater runoff during heavy rains. On the other hand, El Ninotends to reduce the number of hurricanes in the Atlantic, and winters in the northern US tend to be milder than average. Finally, La Niña years can bring more frequent and damaging hurricanes to the western Atlantic. For other areas where ENSO impacts typically occur, seeour card room.

All for ENSO?

There are many processes occurring at any given time in the atmosphere, on land, and in the oceans around the world. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly which climate and weather events are due to El Niño or La Niña and which are due to other natural climate variability. However, ENSO is a powerful force and in many areas the dominant influence on seasonal climates. Due to the uncertainty caused by climate variability, scientists cannot guarantee specific results, but weather prediction can still be accurate several months in advance.

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What can we do?

Climatologists and decision makers can anticipate the future impacts of ENSO by examining its past impacts. Although predictions are fraught with uncertainty, seasonal weather effects in some regions tend to change in a certain way and therefore result in a more likely set of impacts. For example, tropical regions are most affected by ENSO, and while they may be at higher risk of certain hazards, it also means we can better anticipate and prepare for those hazards.

If good weather is forecast for an upcoming season, decision makers can also benefit from the forecast. For example, farmers can plan for a good season by planting additional or different crops, or buying fertilizer to further increase their yield. A farmer is less likely to take these investment risks in a bad year, but if he or she knows that it is likely to be a good year, those risks can pay off.

An area's vulnerability to climate risks is also influenced by its unique sociopolitical and economic characteristics. For example, a peacetime country with developed infrastructure, well-organized emergency management, irrigated agriculture, and a well-informed population is well-equipped to respond to fire, flood, drought, or crop failure, even if it is in a region prone to fire. to climate change. region. On the other hand, a country with fewer resources may be more vulnerable to climate risks, even if it is located in an area that is normally less exposed to climate risks. Therefore, to prepare for the impact of ENSO, it is necessary to understand the geography, vulnerability, and culture of a given area.

Responding and adapting to climate risks requires significant organization. While the best time to prepare ENSO readiness plans is when no event is occurring, this can present challenges in many areas. IRI offers a range of forecasting and forecasting tools, as well as on-site training events for users of different skills and abilities. Leaders and decision makers in all sectors (disaster management, public health, agriculture, water resources, etc.) can collaborate and communicate to ensure that resources are shared, that information is timely and accurate, and that the response be equitable to all stakeholders. Finally, the media can play an important role in risk communication by providing accurate information to the public.

dive into science

What else is there to know? Here are some recent publications from IRI scientists studying the impact of ENSO on local and regional climate:

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Qian, J.-H., A. W. Robertson y V. Moron, 2013:Daily variation in different weather regimes and variability of precipitation over Borneo in relation to ENSO.J.Clima, 26, 1772–1790. DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00178.1.

Koide, N., A. W. Robertson, A. V. M. Ines, J.-H. Qian, D.G. DeWitt and A. Starr.Prediction of rice production in the Philippines using seasonal climate forecasts.Application J. Meteorite. Climat., 52, 552–569. DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0254.1

Qian, J.-H., A. W. Robertson y V. Moron, 2010:Interactions between ENSO, monsoon, and diurnal cycle on precipitation variability over Java, Indonesia.J.Atmos. Sciences.67, 3509–3523. DOI:10.1175/2010JAS3348.1

Allen, J and D Karoly, 2014:A climatology of Australian severe thunderstorm environments 1979-2011: interannual variability and the influence of ENSO.International J. Climatel.34, 81–97.DOI: 10.1002/joc.3667


What is IRI in science? ›

International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is a common permanent scientific project of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) started 1968/69. It is the international standard empirical model for the terrestrial ionosphere since 1999.

What is the current status of La Niña? ›

Current Conditions

La Niña is present. Equatorial sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are below average across most of the Pacific Ocean.

How is ENSO forecast? ›

The majority of models predict a return to neutral ENSO in early 2023. La Niña increases the chance of above average summer rainfall in northern and eastern Australia. The status of the ENSO Forecast is determined using set criteria (described below) and expert analysis by climatologists at the Bureau of Meteorology.

What is the ENSO prediction for the rest of the year? ›

Synopsis: There is a 76% chance of La Niña during the Northern Hemisphere winter (December-February) 2022-23, with a transition to ENSO-neutral favored in February-April 2023 (57% chance). Below-average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) strengthened in the east-central Pacific Ocean during the past month (Fig. 1).

How much does IRI cost? ›

Pricing for permanent use ranges from USD $7K to $19K depending on hardware and location. Each license includes: PII data discovery (database, flat-file, and dark/document data profiling)

What is the purpose of IRI? ›

The Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) is an individually-administered diagnostic tool that assesses a student's reading comprehension and reading accuracy. The IRI measures three reading levels: independent, instructional and frustrational.

Is 2022 a La Niña year? ›

Overall, the coupled ocean-atmosphere system continued to reflect La Niña. The most recent IRI plume forecast of the Niño-3.4 SST index indicates La Niña will persist into the Northern Hemisphere winter 2022-23, and then transition to ENSO-neutral in February-April 2023 [Fig. 6].

Is 2022 an El Niño or La Niña year? ›

Model predictions and expert assessment indicate that La Niña is very likely to continue, with about a 75% probability, during December-February 2022/2023. The chance of ENSO-neutral is about 25% and for El Niño is near-zero. For January-March 2023, the probability for La Niña decreases to about 60%.

Will La Niña continue in 2022? ›

La Niña set to last

The latest update suggests the La Niña is likely to persist through to early 2023. All seven of the climate models monitored by the BOM suggest the La Niña will last through November.

Is 2023 an El Niño year? ›

El Nino Is Coming In 2023 And Then The Gleissberg 100-Year Drought Cycle For Midwest In 2024-2025.

What is the difference between El Niño and ENSO? ›

El Niño and the Southern Oscillation, also known as ENSO is a periodic fluctuation in sea surface temperature (El Niño) and the air pressure of the overlying atmosphere (Southern Oscillation) across the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

Will 2022 be a hotter year? ›

According to NCEI's Global Annual Temperature Outlook, there is a greater than 99% chance that 2022 will rank among the 10-warmest years on record but less than 11% chance that it will rank among the top five.

Will there be La Niña 2023? ›

La Niña continues in the tropical Pacific. Atmospheric and oceanic indicators of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) reflect a mature La Niña. Models indicate La Niña may start to ease in early 2023.

Is El Niño warming or cooling? ›

El Niño: A warming of the ocean surface, or above-average sea surface temperatures (SST), in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Over Indonesia, rainfall tends to become reduced while rainfall increases over the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

Which companies use IRI? ›

  • Alcoa.
  • AVX (Kyocera)
  • Eurocopter.
  • DuPont-Teijin Films.
  • GE Consumer & Industrial.
  • Gulfstream Aerospace.
  • Hughes Aircraft.

Is IRI a good company? ›

81% of employees at IRI say it is a great place to work compared to 57% of employees at a typical U.S.-based company.

How many people work for IRI? ›

Based in Chicago, IL, IRI is a key player in the professional industry with 5,000 employees and an annual revenue of $1.2B. To create the first and only provider of market-based business intelligence solutions for CPG manufacturers and retailers.

Who are IRI's competitors? ›

Competitors and Alternatives to IRI Voracity
  • Informatica PowerCenter.
  • SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS)
  • Pentaho Data Integration (PDI)
  • Oracle GoldenGate.
  • Qlik Replicate.
  • Talend Data Fabric.
  • IBM DataStage.
  • SAP Data Services.

What countries is IRI? ›

IRI in Eurasia currently works in the following countries: Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

What is IRI training? ›

IRI eSuite training is a collection of eLearning courses delivered as an annual web-based subscription service that gives clients access to IRI training content.

Will 2022 be a rough winter? ›

Winter will be warmer than normal, with above-normal precipitation. The coldest periods will be in late November, mid- and late December, and mid- January. Snowfall will be below normal in most areas that normally receive snow, with the snowiest periods in early to mid-January and early February.

Is La Niña wet or dry? ›

During La Niña, the Pacific jet stream often meanders high into the North Pacific. Southern and interior Alaska and the Pacific Northwest tend to be cooler and wetter than average, and the southern tier of U.S. states—from California to the Carolinas—tends to be warmer and drier than average.

How Long Will El Niño last? ›

El Ninos and La Ninas usually last between nine and 12 months but some, particularly La Ninas, can linger for two years in a row.

Is El Niño worse than La Niña? ›

In general, El Niño conditions lead to wetter, snowier conditions in Amarillo and cooler maximum temperatures during the winter. La Niña conditions lead to drier and warmer temperatures overall, with notable extreme cold spells.

Is El Niño every 7 years? ›

El Niño and La Niña events occur every two to seven years, on average, but they don't occur on a regular schedule. Generally, El Niño occurs more frequently than La Niña.

How long does La Niña last? ›

La Niña is defined as cooler than normal sea-surface temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific ocean that impact global weather patterns. La Niña conditions recur every few years and can persist for as long as two years.

Is La Niña cooling or warming? ›

La Niña is a climate pattern that describes the cooling of surface ocean waters along the tropical west coast of South America. La Nina is considered to be the counterpart to El Nino, which is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the equatorial region of the Pacific Ocean.

Is La Niña warming or cooling? ›

La Nina refers to the periodic cooling of ocean surface temperatures in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific. Typically, La Nina events occur every 3 to 5 years or so, but on occasion can occur over successive years. La Nina represents the cool phase of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle.

What is the difference between La Niña and El Nino? ›

They occur when the Pacific Ocean and the atmosphere above it change from their neutral ('normal') state for several seasons. El Niño events are associated with a warming of the central and eastern tropical Pacific, while La Niña events are the reverse, with a sustained cooling of these same areas.

Is ENSO Japanese or Chinese? ›

Drawing ensō is a disciplined-creative practice of Japanese ink painting, sumi-e. The tools and mechanics of drawing the ensō are the same as those used in traditional Japanese calligraphy: One uses an ink brush to apply ink to washi (a thin Japanese paper).

What is the Zen circle called? ›

Enso (formally spelled ensō) is a sacred symbol in Zen Buddhism meaning circle, or sometimes, circle of togetherness. It is traditionally drawn using only one brushstroke as a meditative practice in letting go of the mind and allowing the body to create, as the singular brushstroke allows for no modifications.

Why is it called ENSO? ›

El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) noun. climate pattern in which coastal waters become warmer in the eastern tropical Pacific (El Nio), and atmospheric pressure decreases at the ocean surface in the western tropical Pacific (Southern Oscillation).

When was the last major El Niño? ›

El Niño tends to make atmospheric rivers stronger. El Niño events in 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 drenched the West Coast with record rain. The last El Nino, a weak one, occurred in 2018-2019. El Niño means the little boy or Christ child in Spanish.

When was the last time we had El Niño? ›

Since 2000, El Niño events have been observed in 2002–03, 2004–05, 2006–07, 2009–10, 2014–16, and 2018–19.

What year had the biggest El Niño in recorded history? ›

The strongest El Niño event was in the winter of 1997-98, where the ONI peaked at 2.3. Oceanic Niño Index since 1950. Noted years represent the seven El Niño events where the ONI exceeded a value of 1.5, the definition of a strong El Niño.

Why is La Niña called little girl? ›

The name La Niña originates from Spanish for "the girl", by analogy to El Niño, meaning "the boy". In the past, it was also called an anti-El Niño and El Viejo, meaning "the old man."

Why is called El Niño? ›

Fishermen off the west coast of South America were the first to notice appearances of unusually warm water that occurred at year's end. The phenomenon became known as El Niño because of its tendency to occur around Christmas time. El Niño is Spanish for "the boy child" and is named after the baby Jesus.

What's the opposite of El Niño? ›

El Niño and La Niña represent opposite extremes in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The ENSO cycle refers to the coherent and sometimes very strong year-to-year variations in sea-surface temperatures, rainfall, surface air pressure, and atmospheric circulation that occur across the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

What temperature will the Earth be in 2030? ›

warming above pre-industrial levels, with a likely range of 0.8°C to 1.2°C. Global warming is likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052 if it continues to increase at the current rate.

Why was 1936 so hot? ›

Without the vegetation and soil moisture, the Plains acted as a furnace. The climate of that region took on desert qualities, accentuating its capacity to produce heat. A strong ridge of high pressure set up over the west coast and funneled the heat northward across the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes.

How warm will the Earth be in 2050? ›

Since 1880, average global temperatures have increased by about 1 degrees Celsius (1.7° degrees Fahrenheit). Global temperature is projected to warm by about 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7° degrees Fahrenheit) by 2050 and 2-4 degrees Celsius (3.6-7.2 degrees Fahrenheit) by 2100.

Will it be a warm summer 2022? ›

On average, we're predicting summer temperatures to be hotter than normal across most of the country, ranging from the Atlantic Corridor south to Florida, across to the West Coast, and almost everywhere in between.

How hot will LA be in 2050? ›

According to weather data analysis by, in their 2019 article "Weather 2050", Los Angeles temperatures in 2050 are projected to average 3.5 to 3.6 degrees warmer than at present.
Temperatures in Degrees Fahrenheit.
DecadeAverage Monthly TemperatureTemperature Increase Since 1880s
13 more rows

Does La Niña mean colder winter? ›

A La Niña winter tends to be cooler and wetter in the Pacific Northwest and hotter and drier in the U.S. Southwest. Other worldwide effects include drier conditions in East Africa, and rainier weather in Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines.

Is El Niño caused by humans? ›

No, El Niño and La Niña are naturally occurring climate patterns and humans have no direct ability to influence their onset, intensity or duration.

Is El Niño natural or manmade? ›

El Niño and La Niña are opposite extremes of the ENSO, which refers to cyclical environmental conditions that occur across the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. These changes are due to natural interactions between the ocean and atmosphere.

What is conclusion of El Niño? ›

Conclusion. Conclusion : Under the extreme influences by countless variables including variations in Earth's orbit, the strength of ocean current and possible human influences on the environment, no two El Niño or La Niña events are likely to be identical.

What does IRI mean in education? ›

Idaho's Reading Indicator (IRI) is administered to all K-3 public school students. IRI is an early reading screener and diagnostic assessment.

What is IRI in reading technique? ›

The IRI (Informal Reading Inventory) is designed so that students can continue to read graded passages at successively higher levels until they reach a point at which they can no longer function adequately without frustration.

What does IRI data include? ›

Big data, analytics and insights that power action and growth. As one of the original innovators in big data, IRI integrates the world's largest set of otherwise disconnected purchase, media, social, causal and loyalty data to help CPG, retail, over-the-counter health care and media companies grow their businesses.

Is an IRI standardized? ›

Informal Reading Inventories (IRis) fall in to the non-standardized, or "informal," category because the procedures are not scripted. The interac- tions between teacher and student during each IRI assessment are unique.

Is IRI better than Nielsen? ›

IRI's MULO, or “Multi Outlet,” market offers high-level data across all major industries at the same general level as NielsenIQ. While IRI maintains only a fraction of the employee headcount that NielsenIQ does, it's managed to cultivate strategic appeal for many CPG manufacturers thanks to a few unique selling points.

What are the three types of literacy tasks based in Phil IRI? ›

Based on the Phil-IRI scale, the students are categorized into four levels: Nonreader, frustration, instructional and independent.

How many questions are in the reading inventory? ›

Scholastic Reading Inventory has a test bank of 5,119 questions, and is based exclusively on passages from authentic children's literature, both fiction and nonfiction, as well as excerpts from young adult and classic literature, newspapers, magazines, and periodicals.

Who owns IRI data? ›

A deal could value Chicago-based IRI at more than $5 billion including debt, said the people, asking not to be identified discussing information that is private. IRI is owned by private equity firms Vestar Capital Partners and New Mountain Capital.

Is IRI a private company? ›

IRI also has a 70,000-household consumer panel and the CPG industry's most advanced modeling, testing, and analytics offerings, which provide insights into consumer behavior. After the close of the transaction, IRI will become an independent, privately-owned company in the Symphony portfolio.


1. Climate & Health in Africa, narrated by Judy Omumbo, IRI
(Google Earth)
2. IRI Malaria Correlation Calculation
3. Climate Briefing Highlights for March: Still Not Cooling
4. Climate Briefing Highlights for November 2019: El Niño Still Hanging By a Thread
5. Climate Briefing Highlights: July 2016
6. Sub-seasonal to Seasonal Prediction of Weather to Climate - Andrew Robertson (IRI)


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